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2012考研英语真题—英语二真题及答案

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Section 1 Use of Eninglish


Directions :


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) 


Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be.To the men and women who __1__in World War II and the people they liberated ,the GI.was the__2__man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who__3__all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes,who went without the __4__ of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder .this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid , __5__an average guy ,up


__6__the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in centuries. His name is not much.GI. is just a military abbreviation __7__Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article __8__ to soldiers .And Joe? A common name for a guy who never__9__it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Magrac …a working class name.The United States has __10__ had a president or vicepresident or secretary of state Joe.


GI .joe had a __11__career fighting German , Japanese, and Korean troops . He appers as a character ,or a __12__ of american personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of GI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle__13__portrayde themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the__14__side of the warl, writing about the dirt-snow -and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were __15__ or what towns were captured or liberated, His reports __16__ the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men__17__the dirt and exhaustion of war, the __18__ of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. __19__ Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, __20__ the most important person in their lives.


1.[A] performed  [B]served    [C]rebelled   [D]betrayed


2.[A] actual       [B]common  [C]special     [D]normal


3.[A]bore         [B]cased      [C]removed   [D]loaded


4.[A]necessities [B]facilitice  [C]commodities [D]propertoes


5.[A]and          [B]nor         [C]but           [D]hence


6.[A]for           [B]into         [C] form        [D]against


7.[A]meaning    [B]implying   [C]symbolizing [D]claiming


8.[A]handed out [B]turn over [C]brought back [D]passed down


9.[A]pushed       [B]got         [C]made         [D]managed


10.[A]ever         [B]never       [C]either         [D]neither


11.[A]disguised [B]disturbed   [C]disputed    [D]distinguished


12.[A]company  [B]collection   [C]community   [D]colony


13.[A]employed [B]appointed [C]interviewed [D]questioned


14.[A]ethical     [B]military      [C]political     [D]human


15.[A]ruined     [B]commuted [C]patrolled   [D]gained


16.[A]paralleled [B]counteracted [C]duplicated [D]contradicted


17.[A]neglected [B]avoided [C]emphasized [D]admired


18.[A]stages    [B]illusions   [C]fragments    [D]advancea


19.[A]With       [B]To    [C]Among            [D]Beyond


20.[A]on the contrary [B] by this means [C]from the outset [D]at that point

Section II Reading Comprehension


Part A


Directions: Read the following four texts. answer the question after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)


Text 1


Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.


This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.


District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.


At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing to ensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.


The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.


21.It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____.


[A] is receiving more criticism


[B]is no longer an educational ritual


[C]is not required for advanced courses


[D]is gaining more preferences


22.L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.


[A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education


[B]have asked for a different educational standard


[C]may have problems finishing their homework


[D]have voiced their complaints about homework


23.According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____.


[A]discourage students from doing homework


[B]result in students' indifference to their report cards


[C]undermine the authority of state tests


[D]restrict teachers' power in education


24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______. [A] it should be eliminated


[B]it counts much in schooling


[C]it places extra burdens on teachers


[D]it is important for grades


25.A suitable title for this text could be______.


[A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy


[B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students


[C]Thorny Questions about Homework


[D]A Faulty Approach to Homework


Text2


Pretty in pink: adult women do not rememer being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. Tt is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.


Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses.When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.


I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kins, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behaviour: wrong. Turns out, acdording to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing trick by clothing manufacrurers in the 1930s.


Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. Tt was only after “toddler”became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults,into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences - or invent them where they did not previously exist.


26.By saying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1),the author means pink______.


[A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood


[B]should not be associated with girls' innocence


[C]cannot explain girls' lack of imagination


[D]cannot influence girls' lives and interests


27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?


[A]Colours are encoded in girls' DNA.


[B]Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls.


[C]Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders.


[D]White is prefered by babies.


28.The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological development was much influenced by_____.


[A]the marketing of products for children


[B]the observation of children's nature


[C]researches into children's behavior


[D]studies of childhood consumption


29.We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____.


[A]focus on infant wear and older kids' clothes


[B]attach equal importance to different genders


[C]classify consumers into smaller groups


[D]create some common shoppers' terms


30.It can be concluded that girls' attraction to pink seems to be____.


[A] clearly explained by their inborn tendency


[B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers


[C] mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen


[D]well interpreted by psychological experts

Text 3


In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.


On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.


But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. ”


Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.


AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO.


Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed.


31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----


[A]their executives to be active


[B]judges to rule out gene patenting


[C]genes to be patcntablc


[D]the BIO to issue a warning


32.those who are against gene patents believe that----


[A]genetic tests are not reliable


[B]only man-made products are patentable


[C]patents on genes depend much on innovatiaon


[D]courts should restrict access to gene tic tests


33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----


[A]establishing disease comelations


[B]discovering gene interactions


[C]drawing pictures of genes


[D]identifying human DNA


34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that -----


[A]the supreme court was authoritative


[B]the BIO was a powerful organization


[C]gene patenting was a great concern


[D]lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs


35.generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is----


[A]critical


[B]supportive


[C]scornful


[D]objective


Text 4


The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years.


No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.


But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.


Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.


In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend.


36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___.


[A]seek subsidies from the govemment


[B]explore reasons for the unermployment


[C]make profits from the troubled economy


[D]look on the bright side of the recession


37.According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.


[A]realize the national dream


[B]struggle against each other


[C]challenge their lifestyle


[D]reconsider their lifestyle


38.Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions may_____.


[A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants


[B]bring out more evils of human nature


[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms


[D]ease conflicts between races and classes


39.The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.


[A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities


[B]catch up quickly with experienced employees


[C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’


[D]recover more quickly than the others


40.The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.


[A]certain


[B]positive


[C]trivial


[D]destructive

Part B


Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)


“Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not.


Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration.


From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus - On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders.


Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and explores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit,"wrote Smiles."what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself"His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life.


This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals.


Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles:“It is man, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.”


This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding - from gender to race to cultural studies - were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.


[A]emphasized the virtue of classical heroes.


41. Petrarch

[B]highlighted the public glory of the leading artists.


42. Niccolo Machiavellli

[C]focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate.


43. Samuel Smiles

[D]opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history.


44. Thomas Carlyle

[E]held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle.


45. Marx and Engels

[F]dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders.


[G]depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers.


Section III Translation


46. Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese.Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15 points)


When people in developing countries worry about migration,they are usually concerned at the prospect of ther best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world ,These are the kind of workers that countries like Britian ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates .


Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40%of emigrants had more than a high-school education,compared with around 3.3%of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make .

Section IV Writing


Part A


47. Directions


Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an onlin store the other day ,Write an email to the customer service center to


1) make a complaint and


2) demand a prompt solution


You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2


Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter ,Use "zhang wei "instead .


Part B


48. write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should


1) describe the table ,and


2) give your comments


You should write at least 150 words(15points)


某公司员工工作满意度调查


年龄-------满意度


满意


不清楚


不满意


小于等于40岁


16.7%


50.0%


33.3%


41-50岁


0.0%


36.0%


64.0%


大于50岁


40.0


50.0%


10.0%


Section I Use of English


1.   B


2.   B


3.   A


4.   A


5.   C


6.   D


7.   A


8.   A


9.   C


10.  D


11.  D


12.  B


13.  C


14.  D


15.  C


16.  A


17.  C


18.  C


19.  B


20.  D


Section II Reading Comprehension


Part A


21.  A


22.  C


23.   A


24.   B


25.   D


26.  A


27.  B


28.   A


29.   C


30.   C


31.  C


32.  B


33.   A


34.   D


35.   D


36.  D


37.  D


38.   B


39.   D


40.   B


Part B


41.  A


42.  F


43.   G


44.   C


45.   E


Part C


发展中国家的人们在考虑移民问题时,通常关注的是能否实现前往硅谷或者发达国家的医院和大学工作这种最美好和最光明的愿景。他们也是英国、加拿大和澳大利亚等国家通过制定针对大学毕业生的优惠移民政策来吸引的一类人群。


大量研究表明,发展中国家受过良好教育的人有较强的移民倾向。2004年一项针对印度家庭的大型调查表明,近40%的移民者都受过高中以上的教育,而25岁以上的印度人当中,这个比例只有3.3%左右。这种“人才流失”现象长期以来一直困扰着贫穷国家的政策制定者。他们担心这些急缺技术人才的流失会破坏他们国家的经济。这些人才本应在本国大学教书,在本国医院工作,创造出新产品让本国的工厂来制造。


Section III Writing


51.


范文:


To Whom It May Concern,


I am writing this letter to express my complaint against the flaws of the electronic dictionary I bought from your shop last week.


The reason for my dissatisfaction is that there are two problems of the electronic dictionary. Firstly, when I received it, I found that its appearance had been scratched. Secondly, some of the keys on the keyboard do not work properly. Under these circumstances, I feel that you have not kept your promise posted on the homepage of your online store.


I strongly request that the effective measures should be taken to solve my problem. I appreciate it very much if you can either exchange a new one for me or refund me my money in full.


Thank you for your consideration and I am looking forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience.


Sincerely yours,


Zhang Wei


52.


范文:


The above table clearly shows us the statistics of employment satisfaction in a certain company. Most of people under 40 are unclear or dissatisfied with their work and 16.7% of them feel satisfied; 64% of those between 40 and 50 are not satisfied with their job and no one feel satisfied. 40% of people over the age of 50 feel content with their work, and compared with the other two groups, their satisfaction level is highest.


The reasons for this phenomenon may be listed as follows. First, middle-aged people from 41 to 50 face more pressure than people less than 40 or over 50. For example, they should support the family, both the children and the senior, so that they may consider their work only as a method of earning money and cannot enjoy it. Second, for those over the age of 50, burden is falling and thus satisfaction rate is rising.


In conclusion, the senior citizens, that is, people over 50, feel more content about their work than the young and the middle-aged. In my opinion, such a phenomenon must be paid attention to by the public, and proper and prompt actions should be launched by the young and the middle-aged to develop a healthy way of life and a positive outlook on life.

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