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2012年6月英语四级模拟题及答案解析

来源:原版英语学习网发布时间:2012-08-07 浏览:1269次

Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)


Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled College Students on the Job Market. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.


1.当今大学生面临着严重的就业压力


2.这一现象的产生有多方面的原因


3.解决的办法


College Students on the Job Market


_____________________________________________________________________________


Part I Writing


【写作思路】


本文是关于对某种社会现象的讨论,探讨其原因,并提供解决问题的方案。


毕业生就业压力大,是目前比较热门的话题,媒体、社会以及学生本人都会时不时的讨论,所以文章难度不是很大。


文章开篇提出就业压力大的问题,毕业生越来越多,而就业市场却保持稳定,两者之间的不平衡,导致毕业生面临越来越大的就业压力。


第二段讨论出现这种问题的原因。第一方面,从宏观上来看,整个世界的经济危机影响了就业市场;第二方面,从学校招生来看,热门专业人数过多,结果供过于求,而冷门专业学生很少,结果供不应求。


第三段针对第二段的原因,探讨相应的解决方案。从政府的角度出发,要尽可能的采取各种手段帮助经济恢复,帮助学生就业;从个人角度出发,要学会自主选择,不追潮流,学习自己感兴趣的,努力提高自身素质,增强竞争能力。


【参考范文】


More and more graduates are going out of universities and entering into the society every year while the demand on the job market remains stable. The college students are facing greater and greater pressure in job-hunting.


There are many reasons behind the current phenomenon. To begin with, the economy has been confronted with depression in recent years on a global level, and it takes time for the worldwide economy to recover. What's more, there is an element of irrationality in the enrollment of the campuses. Some hot majors have enrolled too many students, and many people compete for one position after graduation, whereas the majors with little attention have few students, and more graduates are needed than the campus can supply.


The solution to this problem lies with both the government as a whole and the individual in specific. The government takes whatever measures possible to help the economy recover and to create more job opportunities for the applicants. And for the individual students, it is better to study what they are interested in and to gain experience through practice, thus better prepared for the society.


Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)


Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.


Will Electronic Medical Records Improve Health Care?


Electronic health records (EHRs) have received a lot of attention since the Obama administration committed $19 billion in stimulus funds earlier this year to encourage hospitals and health care facilities to digitize patient data and make better use of information technology. The healthcare industry as a whole, however, has been slow to adopt information technology and integrate computer systems, raising the question of whether the push to digitize will result in information that empowers doctors to make better-informed decisions or a morass of disconnected data.


The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) knows firsthand how difficult it is to achieve the former, and how easily an EHR plan can fall into the latter. UPMC has spent five years and more than $1 billion on information technology systems to get ahead of the EHR issue. While that is more than five times as much as recent estimates say it should cost a hospital system, UPMC is a mammoth network consisting of 20 hospitals as well as 400 doctors' offices, outpatient sites and long-term care facilities employing about 50,000 people.


UPMC's early attempts to create a universal EHR system, such as its ambulatory electronic medical records rolled out between 2000 and 2005, were met with resistance as doctors, staff and other users either avoided using the new technology altogether or clung to individual, disconnected software and systems that UPMC's IT department had implemented over the years.


On the mend


Although UPMC began digitizing some of its records in 1996, the turning point in its efforts came in 2004 with the rollout of its eRecord system across the entire health care network. eRecord now contains more than 3.6 million electronic patient records, including images and CT scans, clinical laboratory information, radiology data, and a picture archival and communication system that digitizes images and makes them available on PCs. The EHR system has 29,000 users, including more than 5,000 physicians employed by or affiliated with UPMC.


If UPMC makes EHR systems look easy, don't be fooled, cautions UPMC chief medical information officer Dan Martich, who says the health care network's IT systems require a "huge, ongoing effort" to ensure that those systems can communicate with one another. One of the main reasons is that UPMC, like many other health care organizations, uses a number of different vendors for its medical and IT systems, leaving the integration largely up to the IT staff.


Since doctors typically do not want to change the way they work for the sake of a computer system, the success of an EHR program is dictated not only by the presence of the technology but also by how well the doctors are trained on, and use, the technology. Physicians need to see the benefits of using EHR systems both persistently and consistently, says Louis Baverso, chief information officer at UPMC's Magee-Women's Hospital. But these benefits might not be obvious at first, he says, adding, "What doctors see in the beginning is that they're losing their ability to work with paper documents, which has been so valuable to them up until now."


Opportunities and costs


Given the lack of EHR adoption throughout the health care world, there are a lot of opportunities to get this right (or wrong). Less than 10 percent of U.S. hospitals have adopted electronic medical records even in the most basic way, according to a study authored by Ashish Jha, associate professor of health policy and management at Harvard School of Public Health. Only 1.5 percent have adopted a comprehensive system of electronic records that includes physicians' notes and orders and decision support systems that alert doctors of potential drug interactions or other problems that might result from their intended orders.


Cost is the primary factor stalling EHR systems, followed by resistance from physicians unwilling to adopt new technologies and a lack of staff with adequate IT expertise, according to Jha. He indicated that a hospital could spend from $20 million to $200 million to implement an electronic record system over several years, depending on the size of the hospital. A typical doctor's office would cost an estimated $50,000 to outfit with an EHR system.


The upside of EHR systems is more difficult to quantify. Although some estimates say that hospitals and doctor's offices could save as much as $100 million annually by moving to EHRs, the mere act of implementing the technology guarantees neither cost savings nor improvements in care, Jha said during a Harvard School of Public Health community forum on September 17. Another Harvard study of hospital computerization likewise determined that cutting costs and improving care through health IT as it exists today is "wishful thinking". This study was led by David Himmelstein, associate professor at Harvard Medical School.


The cost of getting it wrong


The difference between the projected cost savings and the reality of the situation stems from the fact that the EHR technologies implemented to date have not been designed to save money or improve patient care, says Leonard D'Avolio, associate center director of Biomedical Informatics at the Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC). Instead, EHRs are used to document individual patients' conditions, pass this information among clinicians treating those patients, justify financial reimbursement and serve as the legal records of events.


This is because, if a health care facility has $1 million to spend, its managers are more likely to spend it on an expensive piece of lab equipment than on information technology, D'Avolio says, adding that the investment on lab equipment can be made up by charging patients access to it as a billable service. This is not the case for IT. Also, computers and networks used throughout hospitals and health care facilities are disconnected and often manufactured by different vendors without a standardized way of communicating. "Medical data is difficult to standardize because caring for patients is a complex process," he says. "We need to find some way of reaching across not just departments but entire hospitals. If you can't measure something, you can't improve it, and without access to this data, you can't measure it."


To qualify for a piece of the $19 billion being offered through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), healthcare facilities will have to justify the significance of their IT investments to ensure they are "meaningful users" of EHRs. The Department of Health and Human Services has yet to define what it considers meaningful use


Aggregating info to create knowledge


Ideally, in addition to providing doctors with basic information about their patients, databases of vital signs, images, laboratory values, medications, diseases, interventions, and patient demographic information could be mined for new knowledge, D'Avolio says. "With just a few of these databases networked together, the power to improve health care increases exponentially," D'Avolio suggested. "All that is missing is the collective realization that better health care requires access to better information—not automation of the status quo." Down the road, the addition of genomic information, environmental factors and family history to these databases will enable clinicians to begin to realize the potential of personalized medicine, he added.


1. In America, it is slow to adopt information technology because —————.


A) the funds invested by the government is not enough in the past


B) EHRs have received less attention of the public in the past


C) whether it will be useful to doctors or not is doubtful


D) UPMC knows how difficult it is to digitize the hospital


2. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) —————.


A) is the first medical center to adopt information technology


B) satisfy the requirement of the government on information technology


C) spent less money on information technology than it was estimated


D) attempted to created a universal EHR system, but met some difficulties


3. The health care network’s IT systems require a lot of effort to ensure it can communicate with one another mainly because —————..


A) the integration among different system is largely up to the IT staff


B) UPMC is like many other health care organizations in the United States


C) UPMC makes EHR systems look easy


D) UMPC began digitizing some of its records in 1996


4. The success of the EHR program is decided by —————..


A) the fact whether the information technology is available or not


B) the fact how well the doctors are trained to use the information technology


C) not only the presence of the technology but the doctor’s training on technology


D) the fact whether physicians can see the benefits of using EHR systems


5. The most important reason of most hospitals being reluctant to adopt EHR system is that —————.


A) the cost is too high for the hospital to afford


B) physicians are unwilling to adopt it


C) there is a lack of staff with adequate IT expertise


D) doctor worry about its negative influence on patients


6. According to the study led by David Himmelstein through health IT —————.


A) it is possible to cut the costs of the hospital


B) it is possible to improve the health care


C) it ensure neither cost saving nor improvement in care


D) it could save as much as $100 million annually


7. The hospital’s managers prefer to —————.


A) spend money on an expensive piece of equipment than on information technology


B) charge patients access to the information technology as a billable service


C) purchase the information technology to improve the health care of the hospital


D) invest more money on the training of the physicians to charge patients more money


8. Jha said the mere act of implementing the technology guarantees ______________________.


9. D'Avolio says the investment on lab equipment can be made up by_____________________.


10. Databases of vital signs, images, laboratory values, medications, diseases, interventions, and patient demographic information could be ____________________.


Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)


原文精译


【1】给自己的事业买最好的保险


消防队无意之中淹没了Mad Gab's的总部,Mad Gab's是Gabrielle Melchionda二十多年前建立的美容公司。尽管Melchionda知道,保险公司会替她换掉损坏的桌椅、电脑以及唇膏架子,但她仍泪流满面。然而,让她吃惊的是,随后几个月,才是真正的痛苦,她一直亏欠工资和租金,销售额慢的像涓涓细流。


【2】Melchionda女士说,“没有投保最重要的企业停顿保险”。她已经投保了财产险和责任险,却从没有想到多买一张保单,以承担事故之后的收入损失。


企业主们有很多类似Melchionda女士的经历。他们的很多保单要么不足以涵盖所有损失,要么投保了错误的风险。关于保险的怨言,有些可以归咎于吝啬的保险公司或信息有误的代理人,更多却是因为企业家自己的保险决策不够全面。


独立的保险代理人Steven Spiro说,“一般来讲,干小生意的人并不太清楚他们拥有或需要的保险范围”。他解释,这些人买保险只是为了遵守办公室租赁条约的要求。


选择代理人


【3】买保险可能让人胆怯,很难知道哪些人是想利用你,哪些人是给你忠告。所以你应该咨询同行的企业家们,他们购买了何种保险以及是向谁购买的。有三类人可以帮你选择保险:独立代理人,专属代理人,风险咨询师。


独立代理人,别称“经纪人”,因为他们代表很多家保险公司,所以可以提供很好的选择。保险公司付他们佣金,一般是一张保单每年保险费的10%到20%。注意:由于某些保险公司付给更多佣金,这些经纪人可能受到诱惑,会有私心和偏爱。


专属代理人代表某一家保险公司,从该保险公司领取薪水,并对其绝对忠诚。一些诸如Allstate的公司只和自己的代理人打交道;也就是说,你只能通过该家保险公司的代理人来购买此公司的保险。


每年年末,按照卖出去的保险和赔偿损失之间的比率,独立代理人和专属代理人都可拿到奖金。这意味着,卖给你尽可能多的保险,而最小化你的索赔,是符合他们利益的。


也要理解,大部分代理人只注意保险。美国保险研究所主要从事小本生意研究的专家Arthur Flitner说,“有时候,没有保险,你的问题反而可能处理的更好。”比如说,建立基金以备不时之需,自己为自己投保来应对某些财产风险;或执行严格的雇佣政策,减少诉讼风险,从经济角度来看,这些更有意义。


这时就需要风险咨询师的帮助了。他们收费很高,一个简单的项目就要花费几千美元。【4】如果你的运作有很大风险,如果你的公司一年收入2500万美元,如果你的公司有100多名员工,这时候雇佣风险专家,才有意义。


找到了可信的代理人,接下来就要买保险了。你想去找多少个代理人都可以,但是需要记住:同样的保险项目,保险公司不会寻找不同的代理人。


选择保单


如果公司总值低于300万美元,你很有可能需要被称为B.O.P.的业主保单,它把业务保单集中在一起,还让你增添必要的保单。每个保险公司的B.O.P.都不一样,购买的时候,要确保自己进行了精确的比较。


如果公司总值高于300万美元,你可能必须分开购买保险。如果公司有几十名员工,做生意不得不买的保单有四个:


【5】员工赔偿保险是州法律要求的,它涵盖员工的医疗费用、残疾人士福利金和死亡赔偿,【6】保险比率因行业和职业不同相差甚远。秘书的保险费可能是,每100美元工资给付22美分,而盖顶工可能是,每100美元给付20多美元。确保你的生意分类正确,不要把玩具厂(制造业被认为是高风险的)误归为设计公司(低风险)。雇员填写索赔表格时,保险公司会认为,你的公司是一个风险系数比较高的设计公司,从而提高保险费。


【8】财产保险包括房产和办公室里的设备。所在建筑的年龄大小,距离消防队的远近,建筑材料是钢铁还是木材,都会使保险比率大有不同。


要注意共同保险条款,如果保险公司认为投保金额不足,这个条款允许保险公司只赔偿部分损失。让代理人加上“协定保险价额 ”,你和保险公司认同一个合适的保险价值。这可能让保险费提高15%,却减少了随后的争端。


一般责任保险涵盖公司对他人健康、财产或名誉带来的伤害损失。一般来说,保险费的比率要考虑以下因素:收入,办公室规模,客户数量。大多数的基本成套保险,是每次危险保100万美元;而伞状保单以相对低的价格涵盖更大范围。


【9】如果可能,一定买比较贵的“发生”保单,它在事故发生当时就给你赔偿,哪怕你已停业或保单已过期。“索赔”保单与此相反,它只有在你受保期间索赔才有效。


【10】企业停顿保险——Melchionda女士本该买的保险,它不仅赔偿事故之后房子重建期间的销售损失、房租、工资损失;还出钱帮你租赁临时办公室或设备,这样你可以尽快的回到轨道上去。


这些保单仅仅是投保的开始。根据你经营的生意种类,还可增加其他几十个保单。像医生、医院的医疗过失保险,这些非常重要;而另一些纯粹是浪费。想要决定你需要哪些保险,可以先问自己两个问题:你承受损失的可能性有多大,你自己可以赔偿所有损失吗?正如专家指出的那样,保险旨在赔偿大灾难,而不是日常维护。


【7】公共调解员George Von York说,“这是场赌博”。他帮助业主和保险公司谈判,以期获得更多赔偿。“大部分人一辈子也没有得到实在的赔偿。但是,孩子,在你需要时,最好还是有保险。”


1. 答案 A


解析:本题考查考生对整篇文章大意的掌握。本篇快速阅读的标题为“为自己的公司买最好的保险”,暗示文章内容围绕着如何买保险而展开的。选项A是标题的同义表述,而B、C、D仅仅涉及了买保险过程中的某一个因素。


2. 答案D


解析:题干中的人名Gabrielle Melchionda出现在文章一开始。文章开头讲述Melchionda女士的遭遇。因为没有保“企业停顿保险”,Melchionda女士蒙受了损失,感到痛苦。答案D是正确选项。


3. 答案B


解析:题干中in that相当于连词because,表示原因。考题考查买保险为什么让人感到害怕。考生可定位在文章的第五段,文章提及有些是忠告,有些却是在利用投保人,而这之间很难分辨。选项B是对此句话的总结。


4. 答案C


解析:考题考查在特定的情况下,投保人应该如何做。考生可根据题干中“如果你的运作有很大风险”,将答案定位在第一个小标题picking an agent的最后两段,文章讲到,此时你需要雇风险咨询师,所以选项C是正确答案。


5. 答案A


解析:考题问到,州法律要求的保险是什么?第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第三段中讲“员工赔偿保险是州法律要求”,所以选项A是正确答案。


6. 答案D


解析:根据题干中的“worker's compensation”,考生可继续锁定第二个小标题下的第三段,原文中讲“Rates vary widely by industry and occupation”,其中vary意为“不同,变动”,和选项D中的be different同义。


7. 答案B


解析:根据题干中的人名George Von York,考生可锁定文章的最后一段,George Von York认为保险就是一场赌博,一辈子可能用不到,可是又不能没有,如果有可能,你还是需要买保险。从中可以看出George Von York的态度,他是建议人们买保险的,而选项C是个干扰项,他并不是向投保人收费很高,而是帮助投保人获得更高的索赔。


8. 答案equipment in your office


解析:根据题干,考生可找到第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第四段,它讲到财产保险涵盖的方面。


9. 答案available


解析:根据题干,考生可锁定第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第七段,原文讲到买这种保险的条件。


10. 答案a temporary office or equipment


解析:根据题干中的business interruption insurance,考生可锁定第二个小标题picking a policy下面的第八段,文中提及“企业停顿保险”的承保内容。


Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.


11. A) The man didn't have much time to spend working on his essay.


B) The man was too busy to complete the assignment.


C) The man shouldn't have turned in the essay late.


D) She's sorry she couldn't help the man last week.


12. A) At the information desk.


B) In a department store.


C) In a restaurant.


D) At a railway station.


13. A) She'll go to the game later.


B) Noise disturbs her when she's reading.


C) She prefers to use headphones.


D) The man should turn off the radio.


14. A) The man should not have stayed up so late.


B) She likes to go to see new films.


C) She wants to go to a film with the man.


D) She prefers old films to new ones.


15. A) She doesn't know where the man went.


B) She doesn't know how to get to the library.


C) She can give the man directions.


D) She wants to find out where Olympic Street is.


16. A) It's a bestseller of the year.


B) She has temporarily forgotten the title.


C) The title is rather difficult to pronounce.


D) She can never recall the title of the book.


17. A) She thinks Henry is not funny enough.


B) She enjoys Henry's humor a great deal.


C) She must learn to understand Henry's humor better.


D) She doesn't appreciate Henry's humor.


18. A) He's waiting to hear from potential employers.


B) He plans to write the letters soon.


C) He missed the job application deadlines.


D) His job interviews went very well.


Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.


19. A) On a bicycle trip.


B) Toa recycling center.


C) To a paper mill.


D) On a business trip.


20. A) Reading cards, calendars and writing paper.


B) Art books and other high-quality printed matter.


C) Insulation for basements.


D) Imitation wood.


21. A) The quality of paper will improve.


B) Paper prices will go down.


C) Garbage dumps will decrease in size.


D) Trees will be saved.


22. A) Husband and wife.


B) Mother and son.


C) Teacher and student.


D) Friends.


Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.


23. A) The man's brother.


B) The man's roommate.


C) A neighbor.


D) A photographer.


24. A) He's noisy.


B) He's messy.


C) He has too many boxes.


D) He goes to class alone.


25. A) He worked for a radio station.


B) He lived in a dormitory.


C) He took a long trip.


D) He visited the man's family.


Part III Listening Comprehension


Section A


11.


M: I can't believe the low mark I got on my last essay —it couldn't have been that bad.


W: Last week was so busy for you. I'm surprised you were even able to get it done on time.


Q: What does the woman imply?


答案A


解析:根据选项,考生可推断听力对话是关于男士的作文问题。男士说,不敢相信作文分数那么低;女士回应:上周你太忙了,我很惊讶你能准时做完。女士暗示,上周男士花在作文上的时间太少了。


12.


W: I have a complaint to make, sir. I waited 10 minutes at the table before the waiter showed up. When I finally got served, I found it was not what I ordered.


M: I'm terribly sorry, madam. It is a bit unusually busy tonight. As a compensation, your meal will be free.


Q: Where does the conversation probably take place?


答案C


解析:根据选项,考生可判断问题是关于地点的,所以在听力过程中,考生要特别关注对话中暗示地点的词组。女士提及到“the waiter,got served,what I ordered”,男士提到“your meal will be free”,从中可以判断对话发生在饭店。


13.


M: Does it bother you if I have the ball game on? I can use headphones if you like.


W: Actually a little peace and quiet would be nice. At least until I finish this chapter.


Q: What does the woman imply?


答案B


解析:根据选项,考生要特别注意对话中男士和女士的做法。男士说:我听球赛会不会影响你?如果你愿意,我可以戴耳机。女士没有直接回答男士的问题,而是说:安静当然好了,至少我要读完这一章。从中可以判断噪音是会影响女士读书的,而选项C是干扰项,是男士戴上耳机。


14.


M: I'm exhausted! I was up till 3 a. m. watching Romeo and Juliet. It was great!


W: Oh, I missed it! You should've called me. I'll take those old classics over modern movies any time.


Q: What does the woman mean?


答案D


解析:选项是关于女士对新、老电影的看法。男士说:昨晚看《罗密欧和茱丽叶》看到凌晨三点!女士感叹自己错过了这部电影,然后用should have called的形式表示虚拟,暗示男士应该叫醒自己的,随后女士用了动词短语take A over B,表示“比起B,更喜欢A”,从中可以看出女士的态度,她更偏爱老电影。


15.


M: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to the library?


W: Well, do you know where Olympic Street is?


Q: What does the woman's question indicate?


答案C


解析:选项是关于问路的。男士问:去图书馆怎么走啊?女士并没有直接回答男士的问题,而是问:你知道Olympic Street在哪里吗?女士暗示,如果男士知道Olympic Street,她就可以给男士指路,从而表明女士知道去图书馆的路。


16.


M: Are you sure you can't recall the name of the book?


W: It's just on the tip of my tongue!


Q: What does the woman say about the book?


答案B


解析:根据选项,考生要注意听力对话中的书名。男士问:你确定记不起书名了吗?女士说:就在嘴边!这里on the tip of one's tongue,表示“就在嘴边,暂时想不起来”,选项B中的temporarily意为“暂时地”。


17.


M: Henry is certainly the funniest person in class; he can always make everyone laugh.


W: I think I still have to get used to his sense of humor.


Q: What does the woman mean?


答案D


解析:选项是女士对Henry幽默的看法。男士说:Henry绝对是班里最幽默的;女士没有直接回应,而说:我想,我需要习惯他的幽默感。从中,可以判断女士并不喜欢Henry的幽默。


18.


W: Well, I have my first job interview on Monday. Have you had any luck with those letters of application you sent out?


M: It's still too soon to tell. Most of the application deadlines haven't even passed yet.


Q: What can be inferred about the man?


答案A


解析:选项是关于男士的工作、面试问题。考生在听力中要特别关注面试的结果等细节。女士说:周一我要去面试。你寄出去的求职信有结果吗?男士回答说:还很早,不知道结果;求职信的最后期限还没有到。从中可以推断,男士目前没有收到面试通知,正在等待可能的回复。


Part V Cloze (5 minutes)


Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.


Approximately, forty percent of Americans see themselves as shy, while only 20 percent say they have never suffered from shyness at some point in their lives. Shyness occurs when a person's apprehensions are so great that they 62 his making an expected or desired social response. 63 of shyness can be as minor as 64 to make eye contact when speaking to someone, 65 as major as avoiding conversations whenever possible.


"Shy people tend to be too 66 with themselves," said Jonathan Cheek, a psychologist, who is one of those at the forefront of current research on the topic." 67 , for a smooth conversation, you need to pay attention to the other person's cues, 68 he is saying and doing. But the shy person is full of 69 about how he seems to the other person, and so he often 70 cues he should pick up. The result is an awkward lag in the conversation. Shy people need to stop focusing on 71 and switch their attention to the other person."


72 , shy people by and large have 73 social abilities than they think they do. 74 Dr. Cheek videotaped shy people talking to 75 , and then had raters (评估者) evaluate how socially skilled the people were, he found that, in the 76 of other people, the shy group had few 77 problems. But when he asked the shy people themselves 78 they had done, they were unanimous in saying that they had been social hops(失败).


"Shy people are their own 79 critics," Dr. Cheek said. 80 , he added, shy people feel they are being judged more 81 than they actually are, and overestimate how obvious their social anxiety is to others.


62. A) prevent B) inhibit C) keep D) motivate


63. A) Symptoms B) Signals C) Highlights D) Incidences


64. A) succeeding B) failing C) acting D) responding


65. A) but B) not C) or D) nor


66. A) preoccupied B) absorbed C) engaged D) indulged


67. A) However B) Then C) For example D) Instead


68. A) that B) which C) what D) how


69. A) worries B) feelings C) emotions D) indifferences


70. A) follows B) picks up C) misses D) catches


71. A) the conversation B) shyness


C) others D) themselves


72. A) Therefore B) Nevertheless


C) On the contrary D) Similarly


73. A) worse B) as good C) better D) best


74. A) When B) Since C) While D) As


75. A) themselves B) friends C) strangers D) others


76. A) name B) terms C) case D) eyes


77. A) oblivious B) obvious C) oblique D) obscure


78. A) what B) whatever C) how D) however


79. A) best B) justice C) fair D) worst


80. A) In particular B) In contrast C) In general D) In comparison


81. A) positively B) negatively C) subjectively D) objectively


原文精译


美国大概40%的人认为自己很害羞,只有20%的人认为自己一生都没有害羞过。一个人忧惧过重,害怕自己的表现达不到社会的期待,这时就会害羞。害羞的征兆,轻则表现为和人交流时不敢直视对方的眼睛,重则表现为何时何地都不敢和人交谈。


心理学家Jonathan Cheek是目前研究此课题的先驱人物之一,他说,“害羞的人太关注自身了。比如,想要交流顺利,需要关注对方给出的暗示,他在说什么,做什么。但是害羞的人只关注自己在对方眼中的形象,经常忽略他本该获得的提示,结果往往导致交流中的滞后,让人尴尬。害羞的人不能只关注自己,需要把注意力转向他人。”


无论如何,大体上来讲,害羞的人社交能力比他们自己想象的要好。Dr. Cheek将害羞的人和陌生人的交流过程进行了录像,然后找来评估人员对这些人的社交技巧进行评价。他发现,在他人看来,这些害羞的人基本没有明显的问题;然而,当他让害羞的人自我评价时,这些人异口同声地说,在社交方面自己是个失败者。


Dr. Cheek说,“害羞的人是自身最苛刻的批评家。”他接着说,一般来讲,害羞的人感觉别人对自己的评价很负面,事实并非如此;他们过高地估计了自己的社交焦虑,其实在他人眼中并没有那么明显。


62.答案B


解析:考生要特别注意,此句中的they指代前面的主语apprehensions,忧惧过多,就阻碍了他们的反应。选项A、B、C都有“阻碍”之意,A和C的常用搭配是prevent/keep sb. (from) doing sth.,而B的常用搭配为prohibit doing sth。D意为“鼓励,刺激”,常用搭配为motivate sb. to do sth.。


63.答案A


解析:考生要注意名词词义辨析。A中的symptom意为“症状,征兆”;B中的signal意为“信号,标志”;C中的highlight意为“精彩部分,最重要的细节或事件,闪光点”;D中的incidence意为“发生”。此句的意思为,害羞的表现征兆。


64.答案B


解析:解答本题要注意上下文。本句大意为:害羞的征兆有两类,一类比较细微,一类却比较严重。前后两种征兆呈排比结构,后半句用到了动词avoid,前半句相对应,选择同义动词fail,表示“不能直视他人”。


65.答案C


解析:本空前后是两种可能性的排比,用or连接,表示“或者”,指害羞的轻微征兆和严重征兆。


66.答案A


解析:本空考查动词搭配。A的搭配为be preoccupied with;而选项B、C、D则常和介词in搭配。


67.答案C


解析:考生要注意前后两句话的关系。Jonathan Cheek认为害羞的人太关注自身。接下来说,在交流过程中,他们太关注自身在对方眼中的形象。从中可以看出,Jonathan Cheek举了个例子来说明害羞的人对自身的关注。


68.答案C


解析:此空和前面的the other persons' cues并列,都做pay attention to的宾语。宾语从句中say和do缺少宾语,用what来充当。


69.答案A


解析:选项A中worries表示“担忧,担心”;选项B中feelings表示“感觉,知觉,气氛,鉴赏力”;选项C中emotions表示“感情”;选项D中indifferences意为“冷淡,漠不关心”。根据上文,害羞的人担心他人对自己的看法。


70.答案C


解析:上一句话中讲,害羞的人太担心自己在他人心目中的印象,所以会常常错过本该注意到的提示。考生选择时,要注意前后两句话的逻辑关系。


71.答案D


解析:本段一直在讲害羞的人太关注自身,在交流中才会出现问题。所以他们应该转移注意力,不要把精力一直放在自身。所以在这里选择反身代词themselves。


72.答案B


解析:此空的选择要联系上下文。前一段讲害羞的人太注意自身,交流中出现了某些问题;而此空的后一段讲,害羞的人和陌生人交流时,表现没有什么大问题。根据前后关系,选择B表示“不管怎么说,无论如何”。


73.答案C


解析:此空的选择也要联系上下文。前面讲害羞的人交流中出现了某些问题;而后面讲害羞的人和陌生人交流时,实际表现没有什么大问题。所以,他们的社交能力比他们想象的要好。


74.答案A


解析:此空是对连词的选择,考生要注意前后两句话之间的关系。when表示“当……的时候”,since表示“自从”,while强调前后两个动作同时发生,或者后面的动作发生在前面的动作行为期间;as也强调动作同时进行,还可以表示原因。


75.答案C


解析:考生要注意这个实验,是观察害羞的人的社交能力。如果是和朋友交流,害羞的人就会比较随意,结果可能不太客观;而选项D中的others既包括陌生人,也包括朋友,所以在这里选择C。


76.答案D


解析:此空考查名词短语。in the name of意为“以……的名义”,terms的短语一般为in terms of,意为“就……而言,在……方面”,case一般用于in this case,表示“在这种情况下”,in the eyes of sb.表示“在……看来”。


77.答案B


解析:本句前后语义为,在他人看来,害羞的人并没有表现出很多问题。答案选obvious,意为“明显的”。选项A中oblivious常作表语,用在be oblivious of中,表示“忘记,不注意”,用在be oblivious to中,意为“对……不在意”;选项C中的oblique,意为“拐弯抹角的”,选项D中的obscure,表示“模糊的,艰涩难懂的。”


78.答案C


解析:do作为不及物动词,经常和副词连用,或者在疑问句中用在how之后,表示“进展,表现”,如:How is the business doing?(生意如何?)


79.答案D


解析:根据上文,害羞的人对自己要求很严格,总觉得自己表现不是很好。而选项中的A、B、C都是褒义词。


80.答案C


解析:考生要注意对四个短语的理解。选项A中的in particular,意为“特别,尤其”;选项B中的in contrast意为“相反”;选项C中的in general意为“一般来讲”;选项D中的in comparison意为“比较起来”。这里Dr. Cheek在讨论一般情况。


81.答案B


解析:从整篇文章来讲,害羞的人总是认为自己表现的不是很好,他人对自己的评价也不会很高,所以在这里选择B,negatively意为“消极地,负面地”。


PartⅥ Translation (5 minutes)


Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.


82. Only under special conditions ______________________ (才允许大一学生参加补考).


83. The new arrival was _______________ (不是别人,正是那位著名的科学家).


84. It's released that by the end of this year _____________________ (这个国家的失业率将会上升到3%左右).


85. If the whole framework of the thesis had been designed beforehand, ____________________________(就会节省很多时间和精力)


86. I was advised to be cautious ___________________ (以防他对我的工作有不良企图).


【答案解析】


82.答案are freshmen permitted to take make-up tests


解析:本题是对倒装的考查。only +表示时间、地点、方式、原因等的副词短语或状语从句,句子的主句需要用倒装,把助动词提到主语的前面。汉语中的句子没有主语,考生要注意被动的使用。


83.答案none other than the famous scientist


解析:本题是对强调的考查。none other than后面加名词,表示“恰恰是,正是”。


84.答案the rate of unemployment in that nation will have risen to about 3%


解析:首先需要注意时态的使用,by the end of this year暗示了本句需要用将来完成时态;其次,需要注意rise to和rise by的区别,rise to表示“上升到”,rise by表示“上升了”。


85.答案a great deal of time and energy would have been saved


解析:本题是对虚拟语气的考查。前半句用了had done的形式,表示对过去事实的虚拟,而主句需要用would have done的结构。同时,汉语句子没有主语,要考虑被动语态的运用。


86. 答案in case he had designs on my job


解析:首先是连词的选择,in case意为“如果,万一”,后面加一个句子。其次,动词短语have designs on sth.,意为“对…….有不良企图”。

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