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英语四级简答历年真题演练

来源:原版英语学习网发布时间:2012-07-24 浏览:1212次

      1999年1月考题


  Would–be language teachers everywhere have one thing in common: they all want some recognition of their professional status and skills, and a job. The former requirement is obviously important on a personal level, but it is vital if you are to have any chance of finding work.


  Ten years ago, the situation was very different. In virtually every developing country, and in many developed countries as well, being a native English speaker was enough to get you employed as an English teacher.


  Now employers will only look at teachers who have the knowledge, the skills and attitudes to teach English effectively. The result of this has been to raise non-native English teachers to the same status as their native counter-parts(相对应的人)--- something they have always deserved but seldom enjoyed. Non-natives are happy--- linguistic discrimination(语言上的歧视)is a thing of the past.


  An ongoing research project, funded by the University of Cambridge, asked a sample of teachers, educators and employers in more than 40 countries whether they regarded the native /non-native speakers distinction as being at all important. “No” was the answer. As long as candidates can teach and had the required level of English, it didn’t matter who they were and where they came from. Thus, a new form of discrimination--- this time justified because it singled out the unqualified--- liberated the linguistically oppressed(受压迫的). But the Cambridge did more than just that: it confirmed that the needs of native and non-native teachers were extremely similar.


  1. The selection of English teachers used to be mainly based on ________.


  2.What did non-native English teachers deserve but seldom enjoy?


  3. What kind of people can now find a job as an English teacher?


  4. What is the result of the “new form of discrimination”(Line 5, Para.4)?


  5. The phrase “the linguistically oppressed”(Line 6, Para. 4) refers to those who were_________.

 


  1999年1月考题


  文章导读


  一个英语教师的标准是什么?是不是只要是a native English speaker就可以了呢?A native English speaker是否就比a non-native English speaker强呢?该篇短文对比了对英语教师过去和现在的职业要求和资格评价的情况,介绍了现在对本族语英语教师和非本族语英语教师一视同仁的变化。


  第一题 The selection of English teachers used to be mainly based on ________.


  题解:本题的重要线索是题干中的“used to”。文章的第二段提到“十年前,……只要是a native English speaker,你就足以成为一名英语教师了”。换句话说,就是过去选择英语教师的标准就是看你是不是a native English speaker。所以本题的正确答案可以是:…whether they were English speakers。


  要点:(1)注意答案是作“on”宾语,后面又有“是否……”,答案应该用由whether引导的名词性从句;


  (2)题干中的“used to”告诉我们答案中也要用过去时态;如果信手写成whether they are English speakers是要扣0.5分的;


  (3)题干中的“English teachers”是一个复数,答案中也要用复数。如果信手写成whether he was English speakers是要扣0.5分的;


  请参考其它的评分标准:


  l 可得2.0分的回答:


  1) their nationality


  2) whether they were native speakers or not


  3) the language the teachers had as mother tongue


  4) the job applicants’ nationality


  5) where they came from and their mother tongue


  l 可得1.5分的回答:


  1) whether is a native speaker or not


  从句中缺主语,语法错误扣0.5分。


  2) their citizenship, whether the job applicants were English speakers or not.


  超词,共11个词,扣0.5分。 l 可得1分的回答


  1) being a native speaker was enough to get you employed


  照抄原文,扣0.5分。与所补充句子语法不搭配,扣0.5分。


  2) they were native speakers or not and whether professional status


  “whether…or not”句式表达错误,扣0.5分。部分内容与问题无关,扣0.5分。


  l 可得0.5分的回答:


  1) nation. A English man is enough to be a English teacher.


  回答不全面,仅包含部分正确内容,扣0.5分。语法错误(应为,时态错误应为过去时)扣0.5分。


  2) Speaking. You should being a native speaker.


  回答不全面,包含部分正确内容,得1 分。语言错误,扣0.5分。


  l 可得0分的回答:


  1) their professional status and skills


  2) a personal level


  3) a native English speaker


  4) the knowledge, the skills and the attitudes.


  没有回答出正确内容,不得分。


      第二题 What did non-native English teachers deserve but seldom enjoy?


  题解:本题有较明确的线索,在第三段中有“something they have always deserved but seldom enjoyed”,本题的答案显然是这个“something”,那么它究竟指的是什么呢?答案很简单,在something的前面有一个破折号,去找一找前面的名词短语就是了,所以答案是:the same status as their native counterparts。


  要点:问题是以what进行的提问而且问的是事物,所以要以名词的形式作答。由于本题较简单,扣分也比较狠。


  l 可得2.0分的回答:.


  1) The status that/which the native counterparts have.


  2) The same status as the native English teachers


  3) Having the same status as those native speakers.


  l 可得1.5分的回答:


  1) Same status as their native counterparts. 语法错误,应为The same status,扣0.5分。


  2) There shouldn’t be linguistic discrimination. 问题以what提问,应回答具体事物,但句子内容基本切合题义,因此扣0.5分。


  3) Raising them to the same status as the native speakers. 语态错误,应为被动语态,扣0.5分。


  4) They were at the same status as the native English teachers. 时态错误,应为现在时,扣0.5分。


  l 可得1分的回答:


  1. Recognition of professional status and skills and a job. 回答包含部分答案,但不全面也不清楚,扣1分。


  2. The result that they have the same status as their native counterparts. 问题问的是没有享受到的事物,回答中用the result,不太合题意,扣0.5分。超词,扣0.5分。


  l 可得0.5分的回答:


  1) Raising of their status. 仅提到地位的提升,但提升到什么程度这一关键内容没有涉及,因此扣1.5分。


  2) They can teach English like native English teachers.


  仅提到象本族语教师一样讲课,但在什么方面一样没有涉及,忽略了关键部分,扣1.5分。


  l 可得0分的回答:


  1) Linguistic discrimination.


  2) Like their native counterparts.


  3) The chances to be an English teacher.


  4) The native English teacher


  完全答非所问,不得分。


  第三题 What kind of people can now find a job as an English teacher?


  题解: 本题有两处重要线索,只要找到一处,即能找到正确答案。这两处线索分别是:第三段的第一句话说,现在雇主们只去注意那些……的人,省略号的部分即是答题的关键。另一处线索是第四段的第二句话,“只要他们能……”,能答出此处,也是正确的。


  要点: (1)问题是“什么样的人”,因此本题的作答应该是名词短语,最好用定语从句。


  (2)题干中的“can”表明这是现在时,这是一个重要的线索。


  其它的评分标准:


  标准答案:


  Those who are qualified.


  Those who can teach English effectively.


  l 可得2分的回答:


  1) Those who have good skills and attitudes to teach effectively.


  2) Both qualified native English speakers and non-native speakers.


  3) Whoever has the knowledge, the skills and the right attitudes.


  l 可得1.5分的回答:


  1) Having the knowledge, the skill and teaching English effectively.


  问题中问的是哪种人能找到教师工作,回答与提问不对应,仅提到应具备的素质,因此扣分。


  2) Those who have knowledge and skills, can teach English effectively. 语言错误,应为,扣分。


  3) Who can teach and have the required level of English. 语言错误,应添加,才能具有名词性,扣分。


  l 可得1分的回答:


  1) People who has knowledge, the skills and attitudes to teach English effectively. 语言错误,应为have,扣分。超词,扣分。


  2) The knowledgeable, skillful people who have the required English level.


  错误使用knowledgeable,该词意思是“渊博的”,与答案内容无关,扣0.5分。若具体回答成为一个英语教师的条件,应为the knowledge, the skills, and the right attitudes,回答中仅提到the skill一项,扣0.5分。


  l 可得0.5分的回答:


  1) The people who had the required level of English. 答案关键内容缺失较多,扣1分。时态错误,扣0.5分。


  2) A people who have the attitudes to teacher English effectively. 句中语言错误较多,扣0.5分。句子语意与原文意义相差较远,扣1分。


  l 可得0分的回答:


  1) He’s the knowledge, the skills, attitudes to teach English effectively.


  2) People can teach English effectively.


  !!特别提示:


  这两个回答看上去与问题毫不相关。但稍加改动即为正确答案:


  1) He who has the knowledge … (1.5分)


  2) People who can teach… (2分)


  也许写下这两个回答的考生已经理解了文章,但由于他们严重错误的表达,他们的回答变得答非所问,不能得分。这一点请大家务必注意。


      第四题What is the result of the “new form of discrimination”(Line 5, Para.4)?


  题解: 这是类似于阅读理解中词义判断的题,但与做阅读理解不同的是,在阅读理解中存在两种词汇题,其一是考查学生利用上下文猜单词的能力,其二是考查根据上下文对(主要是熟悉的)词语的理解能力。而在简答题中,考查的对象主要是第二点。


  就本题而言,原文中已经在括号中给出了不认识的单词的汉语意思,因此,这是不猜测词义的题,而是要求根据上下文判断这外短语在本文中的所指,是一道理解的题。


  在找到第四段中的这个短语后,可以发现在“a new form of discrimination”的破折号之后的部分内容就是答案。稍微组织一下,可以全面的回答为 it singled out the unqualified and liberated the linguistically oppressed。


  如果确实理解了这句话,可以看出它的意思是“它剔除了不合格的(教师),解放了以前在语言上受压迫的(教师)”。


  要点: 问题是“……的结果”,应该用完整的句子作答。


  其它的评分标准:


  l 标准答案:


  The linguistically oppressed are liberated.


  Unqualified English teachers are singled out.


  l 可得2分的回答:


  1) The result is that the linguistically oppressed were liberated.


  2) Singling out the unqualified, liberating the linguistically oppressed.


  3) The unqualified teachers are singled out while the qualified liberated.


  4) It liberated the non-native English teachers linguistically oppressed.


  5) It selected the qualified teachers and singled out the unqualified.


  l 可得1.5分的回答:


  1) The inqualified English teachers are singled out. 语言错误,扣0.5分。


  2) It single out the unqualified liberated ^ linguistically oppressed. 多处语言错误,扣0..5分。


  3) To liberate the linguistically oppressed 不定式表将来,问题问的是已产生的后果,时间不符,扣0.5分。


  l 可得1分的回答:


  1) Qualification may be more important. 句子意义与短文内容不贴切,扣1分。


  2) The non-native teachers replace those unqualified native teachers.


  回答不准确,什么样的非本族语教师没有说清楚,这恰恰是答案的重要部分,扣1分。


  3) The unqualified native English teachers will be fired.


  句子时态错误,扣0.5分。句子含义不准确,扣0.5分。


  l 可得0.5分的回答:


  The non-natives could also become an English teacher.


  与短文意义相差太远,扣1.5分。


  l 得0分的回答:


  1) Teachers are justified if they were qualified.


  2) It will improve the teachers’ all kinds of level.


  3) The non-native speaks are liberate.


  完全答非所问,不得分。


      第五题 The phrase “the linguistically oppressed”(Line 6, Para. 4) refers to those who were_________.


  题解: 本题的短文中的位置与第四题在同一句话中,但答题的线索却不相同。它的线索其实是基于对全文的理解。本文主要是就英语教师的问题,将过去和现在人们对native English speakers和non-native English speakers的英语教师的态度和评判的标准加以对比。在第二段(问题的第一题)指出在过去,只要是native English speaker,你就能是英语教师了,这暗示人们对native English speaker的盲目倾向;第三段指出了人们现在评判英语教师的标准(第二题),最后一句说,“Non-natives are happy--- linguistic discrimination(语言上的歧视)is a thing of the past”,言外之意是过去Non-natives 在过去是受歧视的。那么“受歧视的”与“受压迫的”明显指的是同一种人,所以本题的答案很简单,就是non-native English speakers 的英语教师,可以用英语表达为:non-native teachers of English。


  但本题中有一个陷阱,就是前面的it singled out the unqualified。在过去受压迫的non-native teachers of English中肯定也有合格的和不合格的,所以显然不是所有的non-native teachers of English都被解放了,那些不合格的还是被剔除了。所以如果只答出non-native teachers of English的话,只是理解对了一半,最终本题的正确答案应该是在non-native teachers of English前加上qualified一词。


  要点: (1)问题中要填的是定语从句的表语部分,表示“什么样的人”,因此本题的作答应该是名词短语而不要用句子。


  (2)题干中的“who were”表明这是过去时,这是一个重要的线索。


  l 标准答案:


  qualified non –native teachers of English.


  l 可得2分的回答:


  1) qualified in teaching English but were non-native speakers.


  2) good English teachers but were non-natives.


  3) non-native English teachers who could teach English effectively.


  l 可得1.5分的回答:


  1) non-native speakers but have the ability to teach well.


  回答中没有明确讲教什么课程教的好,与短文意义略有差异,扣0.5分。如果是“teach English”的话,就对了。


  2) able to teach English but not a native English speaker.


  回答中没有指明英语教学的质量好坏,不太符合短文意义,扣0.5分。


  3) the non-native speakers who are qualified for the job.


  问题原句是过去时,回答中用现在时,时态不符,扣0.5分。


  l 可得1分的回答:


  1) non-native English teachers


  短文中对的定义中包含两方面的定义:1. non-native ,2. qualified。回答中只涉及定义的一方面,扣1分。


  2) non-native English teachers but had the required level of English.


  回答不全面,扣1分。回答中提到的英语水平仅是英语教师资格要求中的一条,并不能代表有资格(qualified)。


  3) qualified but unemployed for their being non-native speakers


  回答中既有qualified又有nonnative,本应意义完整,但qualified后所跟unemployed,与原文意思矛盾,且qualified与unemployed两词意义也有矛盾之处,因此,扣1分。


  l 可得0.5分的回答:


  1) non-native English teachers without right treatment. 回答不全面,且有部分内容有语言错误,扣1.5分。


  2) non-native English speaker and have the required level of English.回答不全面,且有语言错误,扣1.5分。


  l 得0分的回答:


  1) employed as a teacher.


  2) the native speakers


  3) employers who have required level but a non-native.


  回答答非所问或完全理解错误,不得分。

      1999年6月


  Directions: In this part, there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. (15 minutes)


  For many women choosing whether to work or not to work outside their home is a luxury: they must work to survive. Others face a hard decision.


  Perhaps the easiest choice has to do with economics. One husband said, "Marge and I decided after careful consideration that for her to go back to work at this moment was an extravagance(奢侈) we couldn"t afford." With two preschool children, it soon became clear in their figuring that with babysitters(临时照看小孩 的),transportation, and increased taxes, rather than having more money, they might actually end up with less.


  Economic factors are usually the first to be considered, but they are not the most important. The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the emotional needs of each member of the family. It is in this area that husbands and wives find themselves having to face many confusing and conflicting feelings.


  There are many women who find that homemaking is boring or who feel imprisoned(被囚人) if they have to stay home with a young child or several children. On the other hand, there are women who think that homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction.


  From my own experience, I would like to suggest that sometimes the decision to go back to work is made in too much haste. There are few decisions that I now regret more. I wasn"t mature enough to see how much I could have gained at home. I regret my impatience to get on with my career. I wish I had allowed myself the luxury of watching the world through my little girl"s eves.


  Questions: (注意:答题尽量简短,超过10个词要扣分。每条横线限写一个英语单词,标点符号不占格。)


  S1. Which word in the first two paragraphs best explains why many women have to work?


  S2. Why did Marge and her husband think it an extravagance for Marge to go back to work?


  S3. What are the two major considerations in deciding whether women should go out to work?


  S4. Some women would rather do housework and take care of their children than pursue a career because they feel______ .


  S5. If given a second chance, the writer would probably choose to ______ .



  文章导读


  有了孩子的妇女是否应该出去工作?这是许多人常常争论的话题。本文作者先是剖析了妇女工作的原因―为了挣钱,然后分别用事实(第一段)和讲道理(二、三段)说明这得不偿失。第一段引用了一个丈夫的话算了一笔账,证明妇女工作划不来;第二段指出经济因素并不是最重要的,家庭成员的感情需要才是最重要的。第三段先退一步,指出许多妇女呆的家里感到厌烦,但也有许多人从家务活中获得了最大的乐趣。最后一段以自己的亲身感受指出妇女进行工作是个草率的决定,暗示说她们的家里也许会得到更多。


  第一题 Which word in the first two paragraphs best explains why many women have to work?


  题解: 本题为主旨类题,要求考生总结出妇女工作的原因。在这两段中都提到了survive,可以知道妇女出去工作主要是为了生存。所以本题的答案应该是名词survive。当然,也可以理解为她们是为了挣钱来生存,所以economy或economics也可以算作正确答案。


  要点: 注意问题中的which word,因此本题的答案应为一个单词,而不要答成“They must work to survive”一类的话。


  第二题 Why did Marge and her husband think it an extravagance for Marge to go back to work?


  题解: 此题属于细节类问题。文章第二段:玛基和她丈夫认为她重新外出工作对全家来说是一种奢望。他们有两个学龄前的孩子。如果把雇人照看孩子的费用、交通费用和增加的税款加在一起, 那么算下来将不但赚不到钱,收入实际上还可能减少。


  要点: (1)本题所问内容从玛基和她丈夫的角度讲是没有发生的事情。即回答的内容与事实相反。故答案均采用与事实相反的虚拟语气形式。否则是要扣分的。


  (2)问题是why,回答时最好用because开头(尽管省略because也不扣分)。


  答案: Because they might end up with less money.


  或 Because they would spend more than their earnings.


  或 Because their earnings wouldn’t cover the spending.


  或 Because they couldn’t afford the extra payments of double-worker family.


  或 Because going back to work might cost more money.


      第三题 What are the two major considerations in deciding whether women should go out to work?


  题解: 题干中的consideration是寻找答案的关键词。从文章中可以在第三段找到consider一词,这一句明确地说“Economic factors are usually the first to be considered”,所以这里的economic factors肯定是答案的一个方面。但问题是“the two major considerations”,所以还有另一方面。根据这句话的下一句话,“The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the emotional needs of each member of the family”可以挑出来,即“the emotional needs”。


  要点: 注意组织答案要规范和完善,如果Economic factors, emotional needs 为答案的话就不规范, 肯定不会得满分。


  答案: Economic factors and emotional needs(of each family member)


  或One is economic factors, the other is emotional needs.


  或They are economic factors and emotional needs.


  第四题 Some women would rather do housework and take care of their children than pursue a career because they feel______ .


  题解: 本题较为简单,从第四段的对比论述可以知道答案在其最后一句话,即homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction。


  要点: 本题只答出从句部分即为正确答案,不要画蛇添足。


  答案: satisfied with homemaking


  或 that homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction


  或that homemaking and being with children give them deepest satisfaction


  第五题 If given a second chance, the writer would probably choose to ______ .


  题解: 此题属于推断类题。在第五段里,作者通过自身的体验总结说,不要轻易放弃家庭生活,她对自己迫不及待地出去工作表示后悔,并表示但愿能享受一下与自己的孩子在一起看世界的快乐。由此可断定, 若有机会她宁愿与女儿即家人呆在一起, 所以答案为stay home with her little girl 或 stay home and enjoy family life.


      1997年1月


  In Britain, the old Road Traffic Act restricted speeds to 2 m. p. h. (miles per hour) in towns and 4 m. p. h. in the country. Later parliament increased the speed limit to 14 m. p. h. But by 1903 the development of the car industry had made it necessary to raise the limit to 20 m. p. h. By 1930, however, the law was so widely ignored that speeding restrictions were done away with altogether. For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked. Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings.


  Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain. Offences for speeding fall into three classes: exceeding the limit on restricted road, exceeding on any road the limit for the vehicle you are driving, and exceeding the 70 m. p. h. limit on any road. A restricted mad is one where the street lamps are 200 yards apart, or more.


  The main controversy (争论) surrounding speeding laws is the extent of their safety value. The Ministry of Transport maintains that speed limits reduce accidents. It claims that when the 30 m. p. h. limit was introduced in 1935 there was a fall of 15 percent in fatal accidents. Likewise, when the 40 m. p. h. speed limit was imposed on a number of roads in London in the late fifties, there was a 28 percent reduction in serious accidents. There were also fewer casualties (伤亡)in the year after the 70 m. p. h. motorway limit was imposed in 1966.


  In America, however, it is thought that the reduced accident figures are due rather to the increase in traffic density. This is why it has even been suggested that the present speed limits should be done away with completely, or that a guide should be given to inexperienced drivers and the speed limits made advisory, as is done in parts of the USA.


  Questions:


  1. During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits?


  2. What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions?


  3. Speeding is a motoring offense a driver commits when he __________.


  4. What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws?


  5. What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents?



  文章导读


  为什么会产生交通事故?是不是因为车辆的速度太快了?本文第一段借英国公路交通法有关速度限制方面的发展与变更来影射这个回答。第二段指出超速是现在英国最普遍的机动车违规,并列举了三种违规现象。那么在多大程度上限速能减少交通事故呢?第三段列举了不同历史时期的数字加以佐证。文章最后一段提出了另一种看法,即在美国, 事故数字的减少被归因于交通密度的增加。


  第一题 During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits?


  题解 这一题要求综合第一段的第3、4、5三句来解答。第三句说到1930“speeding restrictions were done away with altogether”,接下来又说,“For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked”,因此可知,无速度限制的时间是从1930年起(包括1930年),延续了5年,即是1930、1931、1932、1933、1934这五年。最后一句“Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas”,说明到了1935年,speed limit又实行了。


  要点: 提问是“during which period”,答案中只要给出一个时间的表达式就可以了,没有必要以整句作答,以免言多有失。有一位考生这样回答:During 1930 and 1935 could British motorists drive without speed limits. 姑且字数多了一个不说,这个倒装也有点问题。松一点的评委给1.5分,严一点的给1分,你说亏不亏?


  答案: From 1930 to 1935.


  或between 1930 and 1935


  或1930、1931、1932、1933、1934。


  第二题 What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions?


  题解 题干中的1935是寻找答案的明确线索,明显应在第一段的最后一句话“Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings”。题干中的speed restrictions对应于这句话中的a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas,剩下的自然就是the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings。


  要点 本题只要回答出what measures即可,没有必要再加上谓语部分。


  答案 Driving tests and pedestrian crossings.


  或 The introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings.


      第三题 Speeding is a motoring offense a driver commits when he __________.


  题解 从题干中的“motoring offense”出现在第二段的第一句话。这句话也就是第二段的主题句。它总领了后面对三种speeding的描述,在这三种情况中,speeding都是exceeding the … (speed) limit。


  要点 空格中要求填的是谓语,用动词来解释speeding这个词,因此必须填动词的形式。同时要注意第三人称单数和时态。


  答案 exceeds the speed limits. 或 drives over the speed limit 或 breaking the speeding laws.


  第四题What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws?


  题解 题干中的British authorities即是指第三段第二句话中的the Ministry of Transport,而这句话中的maintain一词则是引述中常用的一个词,常表示“……认为”的意思,那么它后面的内容就是本题的答案了。


  要点 (1)本题较好回答,但要注意避免原文照抄,否则会被扣掉0.5分。其实只要将“The Ministry of Transport maintains”改成“They maintain”(注意单复数)就行了。


  (2)简练作答的话,要注意把宾语从句的引导词“that”舍掉,否则显得有些多余,弄不好会丢分。


  答案 Speed limits reduce accidents. 或Speed limits help reduce accidents.


  第五题 What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents?


  题解 在四级考试中,也有很多送分的题。本题中的“Americans”告诉我们它的答案肯定在最后一段。其实,只要大体上读懂第四段的第一句话,看出其中的“due(rather)to”是表示原因的即能做出正确答案,即“the increase in traffic density”。


  要点 注意与问题所问的方式一致, 否则要扣分。

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