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英语四级常考语法名师精讲

来源:原版英语学习网发布时间:2012-07-09 浏览:1227次

非谓语动词与独立主格:短语,句子(或者句子,短语)


当短语部分有独立主语,并且该主语不同于句子主语,这时短语结构称为独立主格。(它最明显的特点是短语部分有独立的主语)。


独立主格的结构1:名词(代词)+ 分词 [现在分词、过去分词]


现在分词表示主动的,正在进行的行为;过去分词表示被动的,已经完成的行为。 作题时要通过判断动作与名词(代词)之间的关系来确定是使用现在分词还是过去分词。当动作由名词(代词)发出时使用现在分词,而名词(代词)是受动者时则用过去分词。


1. Silver is the best conductor of electricity, copper _B_ it closely.


A followed B following C to follow D being followed


2. All things _A_, the planned trip will have to be called off.


A considered B be considered C considering D having considered


call off 取消; cancel vt. 取消; 四级中的考点就是现在分词和过去分词的区别。


独立主格的结构2:with + 名词(代词)+ 分词 [句子当中作状语]


3. After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls as well as boys _C_ to go to school.


A to be encouraged B been encouraged C being encouraged D be encouraged


as well as 和(相当于and); be encouraged不会考。


动词不定式有预示将来行为的含义。to be encouraged 将要被鼓励;


been encouraged 已经被鼓励完了,与主句的谓语动词相对;being encouraged 正在被鼓励


短语部分没有独立主语,则短语结构称为非谓语动词。


非谓语动词的结构:分词(分词短语)


句子的主语决定非谓语动词中的分词是用主动还是被动形式。如果是句子的主语发出动作,则使用现在分词;如果动作不是由句子的主语发出,则使用过去分词。


1.No matter how frequently _A_, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.


A performed B performing C to be performed D being performed


perform vt. 表演,演出,演奏;


to be performed 将要被演奏; being performed 正在被演奏;


一些特殊的动词:


第一点:forget 忘记; [反义] remember 记得;


这两个词后加动词不定式表示将要进行的行为;这两个词后加动词ing形式表示已经做过的事情。


注意:动名词与现在分词形式一样,但含义不同。这两个词后加动词ing形式都是动名词。


forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事; forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事;


remember to do sth. 记得要去做某事; remember doing sth. 记得做过某事;


2. I remember _B_ to help us if we ever got into trouble.


A once offering B him once offering C him to offer D to offer him


offer vt. 提出,提供; offer sb. sth. / offer to do sth.


him once offering 如果改成 his once offering 也正确。

短语部分没有独立主语,则短语结构称为非谓语动词。


非谓语动词的结构:分词(分词短语)


句子的主语决定非谓语动词中的分词是用主动还是被动形式。如果是句子的主语发出动作,则使用现在分词;如果动作不是由句子的主语发出,则使用过去分词。


1.No matter how frequently _A_, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.


A performed B performing C to be performed D being performed


perform vt. 表演,演出,演奏;


to be performed 将要被演奏; being performed 正在被演奏;


一些特殊的动词:


第一点:forget 忘记; [反义] remember 记得;


这两个词后加动词不定式表示将要进行的行为;这两个词后加动词ing形式表示已经做过的事情。


注意:动名词与现在分词形式一样,但含义不同。这两个词后加动词ing形式都是动名词。


forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事; forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事;


remember to do sth. 记得要去做某事; remember doing sth. 记得做过某事;


2. I remember _B_ to help us if we ever got into trouble.


A once offering B him once offering C him to offer D to offer him


offer vt. 提出,提供; offer sb. sth. / offer to do sth.


him once offering 如果改成 his once offering 也正确。


动名词的复合结构:凡是一个动词的后面可以加动名词,就可以加动名词的复合结构。


动作发出者 + 动名词;当动作发出者名字给出时:名词所有格 + 动名词;当动名词的复合结构在文章中出现,且动作发出者在前文中提过时:形容词物主代词(宾格)+ 动名词。


形容词物主代词:his, her, my, your, their, our。代词宾格:him, her, me, you, us, them。


第二点:want 想要; want to do sth. 想做某事; want doing 客观需要或缺乏。


例. Your hair wants _B_. You’d better have it done tomorrow.


A cut B cutting C to cut D being cut


1. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.


A to erect B be erected C erecting D being erected


watch 看电视用,看比赛用; see 看电影用;


感官动词watch, see, hear; 感官动词 + 名词(代词)+ do


be erected 强调的是动作的结果; being erected 强调的是动作的过程。


2. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.


A gives up B gives in C gives away D gives off


give up 放弃; give in 屈服,让步; give off 释放,放出(烟和气体);


give away 泄露,走漏风声;婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程;赠送礼品。


3. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.


A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing


keep sb. + 分词; inform v. 通知,告知; inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情


keep me informed 使我被告知。


4. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.


A after which B for which C with which D at which


fight with sb. (注意要看整个句子); fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。


I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。


5. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.


A carried out B carried off C carried on D carried forward


in spite of 尽管; carry on 坚持,继续。


注意:want doing 中doing表示的是被动含义。


例. This room is so dirty that it wants _A_.


A cleaning B to clean C being cleaned D cleaned


第三点:mean 意味; mean to do sth. 打算做某事,意欲… ;mean doing 意味着,…的意思是…


例. There’s a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _B_ trouble. [reception desk 接待台]


A making B to make C to have made D having made

动名词的复合结构:凡是一个动词的后面可以加动名词,就可以加动名词的复合结构。


动作发出者 + 动名词;当动作发出者名字给出时:名词所有格 + 动名词;当动名词的复合结构在文章中出现,且动作发出者在前文中提过时:形容词物主代词(宾格)+ 动名词。


形容词物主代词:his, her, my, your, their, our。代词宾格:him, her, me, you, us, them。


第二点:want 想要; want to do sth. 想做某事; want doing 客观需要或缺乏。


例. Your hair wants _B_. You’d better have it done tomorrow.


A cut B cutting C to cut D being cut


注意:want doing 中doing表示的是被动含义。


例. This room is so dirty that it wants _A_.


A cleaning B to clean C being cleaned D cleaned


第三点:mean 意味; mean to do sth. 打算做某事,意欲… ;mean doing 意味着,…的意思是…


例. There’s a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _B_ trouble. [reception desk 接待台]


A making B to make C to have made D having made


1. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.


A to erect B be erected C erecting D being erected


watch 看电视用,看比赛用; see 看电影用;


感官动词watch, see, hear; 感官动词 + 名词(代词)+ do


be erected 强调的是动作的结果; being erected 强调的是动作的过程。


2. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.


A gives up B gives in C gives away D gives off


give up 放弃; give in 屈服,让步; give off 释放,放出(烟和气体);


give away 泄露,走漏风声;婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程;赠送礼品。


3. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.


A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing


keep sb. + 分词; inform v. 通知,告知; inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情


keep me informed 使我被告知。


4. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.


A after which B for which C with which D at which


fight with sb. (注意要看整个句子); fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。


I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。


5. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.


A carried out B carried off C carried on D carried forward


in spite of 尽管; carry on 坚持,继续。

1. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.


A to erect B be erected C erecting D being erected


watch 看电视用,看比赛用; see 看电影用;


感官动词watch, see, hear; 感官动词 + 名词(代词)+ do


be erected 强调的是动作的结果; being erected 强调的是动作的过程。


2. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.


A gives up B gives in C gives away D gives off


give up 放弃; give in 屈服,让步; give off 释放,放出(烟和气体);


give away 泄露,走漏风声;婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程;赠送礼品。


3. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.


A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing


keep sb. + 分词; inform v. 通知,告知; inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情


keep me informed 使我被告知。


4. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.


A after which B for which C with which D at which


fight with sb. (注意要看整个句子); fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。


I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。


5. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.


A carried out B carried off C carried on D carried forward


in spite of 尽管; carry on 坚持,继续。


6. I should like to rent a house, modern, comfortable and _B_ in a quiet neighborhood.


A all in all B above all C after all D over all


all in all 总而言之;above all 首先,尤其是;after all 毕竟,终究;overall 全面的,总体的


in a word 总之,in short 简而言之,in conclusion 最后,总之,to sum up总之,总而言之。


7. _B_ we have finished the course, we shall start doing more revision work.


A For now B Now that C Ever since D By now


now that 既然,由于(相当于since); ever since 自从…以来。


与that搭配且后面可以加句子的几个表达形式:


now that 既然,由于; in that 因为; except that 除…之外。


except后面加名词或代词;except that后面加句子。


8. What you have done is _D_ the doctor’s orders.


A attached to B responsible to C resistant to D contrary to


be attached to 连接,附属; This school is attached to Beida. 这所学校附属于北大。


responsible to 对…负有责任; resistant adj. 反抗的,抵抗的; water resistant 防水的。


be contrary to 与。。相反(相违背)。


9. John regretted _A_ to the meeting last week.


A not going B not to go C not having been going D not to be going


regret doing 后悔做过某事; regret to do sth. 遗憾的做某事(应用语境非常有限)。


10. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are _B_.


A out of work B out of stock C out of reach D out of practice


out of work 失业; out of reach 够不着 within reach 够得着; out of practice 缺乏练习。

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