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四级英语阅读真题长难句分析之四

来源:原版英语学习网发布时间:2012-07-05 浏览:1293次

英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(十八)


69. Not only has the highway system affected the American economy by providing shipping routes, it has led to the growth of spin-off industries like service stations, motels, restaurants, and shopping centers. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为并列句。句子主干为Not only has the highway system affected the economy, it has led to the growth。not only…but also 句型属并列结构,意为“不仅……而且”,but also 可以省略。 not only 在句首,句子谓语要用部分倒装语序。

【译文】公路系统不但通过提供运输路线影响美国经济的发展,还带动了一批诸如加油站、汽车旅馆、酒店、购物中心等相关行业的发展。


70. An educated mother, on the other hand, has greater earning abilities outside the home and faces an entirely different set of choices. (2006年6月)

【分析】 本句为简单句。句子主干为mother has abilities and faces choices。on the other hand是插入结构,分隔了主语和谓语,意为“另一方面”。

【译文】从另一方面来讲,一位受过教育的母亲,有更多在外赚钱的本事,并且能面对一系列完全不同的选择。


71. His results, to be presented at the conference on human-computer interaction in Vienna, Austria, in April, have surprised psychologists. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 results have surprised psychologists。to be presented…in April 是不定式短语作定语,修饰 results。

【译文】他的研究结果令一些心理学家非常吃惊,他将在四月份奥地利维也纳举行的人机互动交流大会上为大家展现。


72. And economics, with its emphasis on incentives,provides guideposts that point to an explanation for why so many girls are deprived of an education. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为economics provides guideposts。介词短语 with its emphasis on incentives 是 economics 的伴随状语,分隔了主句的主语和谓语。that引导定语从句,修饰 guideposts。why引导宾语从句,作 explanation for 的宾语。

【译文】因为本身强调激励作用,经济学对于大多数女孩被剥夺受教育权利的原因作出了解释。


73. Many in-home jobs that used to be done primarily by women — ranging from family shopping to preparing meals to doing voluntary work — still need to be done by someone. (2006年12月)

【分析】 本句为复合句。句子主干为 jobs need to be done。 that 引导定语从句,修饰 jobs。 ranging from…to…voluntary work 是现在分词短语作定语,也修饰 jobs。

【译文】许多过去主要由妇女做的家务活,例如购物、准备晚饭、做义务家务,现在仍然需要有人完成。

 

英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(十九)


74. In fact, New York’s municipal water for more than a century was called the champagne of tap water and until recently considered among the best in the world in terms of both taste and purity. (2006年12月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 water was called the champagne and considered the best。 for more than a century 是时间状语。

【译文】实际上一个多世纪以来,纽约的市政水一直被称为自来水中的香槟,而且直到现在也被认为是世界上味道最好、最纯净的水。


75. Girls are thus seen as less valuable than boys and are kept at home to do housework while their brothers are sent to school — the prophecy(预言) becomes self-fulfilling, trapping women in a vicious circle(恶性循环) of neglect. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句是破折号后的内容,前面则是prophecy的同位语从句。该从句包含一个while引导的比较状语从句,其中又嵌套一个than引导的比较状语从句,省略了从句谓语。trapping是现在分词短语作伴随状语。

【译文】所以,与男孩相比,女孩被认为没有用处而只能待在家里做家务,而她们的兄弟却被送去读书——这样的预言正如预期的那样成为了现实,使女性陷入被忽视的恶性循环。


76. It starts in the Pacific Ocean and is thought to be caused by a failure in the trade winds(信风), which affects the ocean currents driven by these winds. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为并列复合句。主句为It starts in the Pacific Ocean and is thought to be caused by…winds。which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰 failure。过去分词短语driven by these winds是the ocean currents的后置定语。

【译文】这种现象首先出现在太平洋,并且被认为是由于信风引起的,信风会对洋流产生影响。


77. A government study recommended a national highway system of 33,920 miles, and Congress soon passed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, which called strict, centrally controlled design criteria. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为并列复合句。主句为A government study recommended…, and Congress soon passed the…Act of 1944。 which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰 Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944。

【译文】一份政府研究报告建议在全国范围建设总长33920英里的公路,国会很快就通过了1944年联邦支持公路的法案,这项法案规定了严格的中央控制的设计标准。


英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(二十)


78. Traffic control systems and methods of construction developed under the interstate program soon influenced highway construction around the world, and were invaluable in improving the condition of urban streets and traffic patterns. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 system and methods influenced construction and were invaluable。第二个and连接两个并列谓语。developed under the interstate program 是过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰 systems和methods。

【译文】在州际公路项目下发展的交通控制系统以及建筑方式很快影响到了世界范围公路的建设,并为改善城市街道和交通模式起到了重要作用。


79. By opening the North American continent, highways have enabled consumer goods and services to reach people in remote and rural areas of the country, spurred the growth of suburbs, and provided people with greater options in terms of jobs, access to cultural programs, health care, and other benefits. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为highways have enabled…to reach people, spurred the growth, and provided people with options。By opening the North American continent 是方式状语。

【译文】通过开通北美洲路线,公路使得消费品和服务能够到达住在边远地区和农村地区的人们那里,刺激周边地区经济发展,为人们提供更多选择,如工作、文化活动、保健及其他福利。


80. The technological advances made it possible for the middle classes to enjoy what had once been affordable only to the very rich. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为technological advances made it possible to enjoy…。it作形式宾语,真正的宾语是to enjoy what had once been affordable only to the very rich。what 引导的从句作enjoy的宾语。possible 是made的宾语补足语。

【译文】技术上的进步使中产阶级也能享受到那些原来只有有钱人才负担得起的东西。


81. The clock, called Sleep Smart, measures your sleep cycle, and waits for you to be in your lightest phase of sleep before rousing you. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 The clock measures cycle and waits,两个谓语并列平行。called Sleep Smart 是过去分词短语作定语,修饰 clock, 表示被动。现在分词短语 before rousing you 作时间状语,相当于一个从句:before it rouses you。

【译文】这种称做“睡精灵”的闹钟可以测量睡眠周期,等待人们进入浅眠状态后才将其唤醒。


英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(二十一)


82. The point in that sleep cycle at which you wake can affect how you feel later, and may even have a greater impact than how much or little you have slept. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为并列复合句。句子主干为 The point can affect and may have impact。and 连接两个并列的谓语。which 引导定语从句,修饰 point, at the point 是固定搭配,所以 which 前面加介词 at。than 后面是 how 引导的宾语从句。

【译文】在睡眠中的哪个阶段醒来将会影响到你之后的感觉,甚至可能比睡眠时间长短对你产生的影响更大。


83. While she awaits the outcome, the government has granted her permission to work here and she has returned to her job at Ben&Jerry’s. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为并列复合句。句子主干为the government has granted her permission and she has returned to job。while 引导时间状语从句,意为“当……的时候”。

【译文】在她等待结果的同时,美国政府同意她继续在本杰瑞公司工作,现在她已经重返工作岗位。


84. Modern cars are far tougher to steal, as their engine management computer won’t allow them to start unless they receives a unique ID code beamed out by the ignition(点火) key. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句为Modern cars are far tougher to steal。as引导原因状语从句,比 because 语气弱。 unless 引导条件状语从句。beamed out by the ignition key 是过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰code。

【译文】现代化的汽车就难对付多了,因为它们的引擎控制系统只有在接收到某个特定的认证编码后才允许汽车发动,而这个认证编码只有在转动车钥匙点火发动汽车时才能产生。


85. The first study to compare honesty across a range of communications media has found that people are twice as likely to tell lies in phone conversations as they are in emails. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为The study has found…。动词不定式短语 to compare…communications media 作定语,修饰 study。that 引导宾语从句。as 引导比较状语从句。twice 在这里意为“两倍”,修饰 likely to tell lies。

【译文】首个关于比较通讯媒介相关的诚实度的研究表明,人们可能在电话中说谎的几率是在电子邮件中的两倍。


英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(二十二)


86. As the trade winds lessen in strength, the ocean temperatures rise, causing the Peru current flowing in from the east to warm up by as much as 5℃. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句为 the ocean temperatures rise。as 引导时间状语从句。现在分词短语causing…作伴随状语。as much as是比较结构,意为“和……一样”。

【译文】随着信风强度的减弱,海洋温度升高,导致了秘鲁寒流从东部流入,温度上升了5摄氏度。


87. The interstate highway system was finally launched in 1956 and has been hailed as one of the greatest public works projects of the century. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 The system was launched and has been hailed。介词as 在这里意为“作为,当作”。

【译文】州际公路体系最终在1956年开建,并被称道为那个世纪最伟大的工程之一。


88. He says it would only take him a few minutes to teach a person how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为He says…。says 后接宾语从句。it 作形式主语,该结构It + takes + (sb.) some time + to do sth.表示“(某人)……花费时间做……”。using a bare minimum of tools 是现在分词短语作伴随状语。

【译文】他声称自己可以花几分钟就能教会一个新手用最少的几样工具偷到一辆车。


89. But Hancock says it is also crucial whether a conversation is being recorded and could be reread, and whether it occurs in real time. (2006年6月)

【分析】本句为并列复合句。句子主干为Hancock says…。 says 后是省略 that 的宾语从句。从句中it 是形式主语,真正的主语是两个并列的 whether 引导的主语从句。

【译文】但是 Hancock 说问题的关键还在于交流的内容有没有被记录,有没有被重读的可能性,是否即时发生。


英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(二十三)


90. If you are submitting your resume in English, find out if the recipient(收件人) uses British English or American English because there are variations between the two versions.(2006年6月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句为find out…。第一个If引导条件状语从句,表示“如果”;第二个if引导宾语从句,表示“是否”,相当于whether;because后说明原因。

【译文】如果你提交的是英文简历,需要了解收件人使用的是英式英语还是美式英语,因为这两种说法存在差别。


91. I wondered what I would do if confronted with a real midair medical emergency without access to a hospital staff and the usual emergency equipment. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句为I wondered…。 what 引导宾语从句,作 wondered 的宾语。if 引导条件状语从句,从句中省略 I were。

【译文】我一直在琢磨,如果在半空中发生紧急事件,没有医务人员,没有急救装备,我该如何面对。


92. Thanks to more recent legislation, flights with at least one attendant are starting to install emergency medical kits to treat heart attacks. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为flights are starting to install kits。介词短语 Thanks to more recent legislation 作状语,thanks to意为“多亏;由于”。

【译文】多亏了前不久的立法 ,至少配有一名乘务员的飞机上开始配备急救箱以应对突发心脏病。


93. The logo, along with the company’s long-held marketing image of the “irresistibility” of its chips, would help facilitate the company’s global expansion. (2005年12月)

【分析】 本句为简单句。句子主干为 The logo would help facilitate expansion。along with the company’s…its chips 是插入语。

【译文】这个标识,再加上公司建立起来的“无以匹敌”的薯片经久不衰的市场形象,将会有助于加快公司的全球扩张。


94. The executives acknowledge that they try to swing national eating habits to a food created in America, but they deny that amounts to economic imperialism. (2005年12月)

【分析】 本句是并列复合句。句子的主干为The executives acknowledge…but they deny…。but 是连词, 两个并列分句都包含一个宾语从句。后一个分句中省略了关联词 that, 而句中的 that 指代前句讲到的那一种行为,即把各国的饮食习惯都转到一种美国创造的食物。

【译文】公司高层管理者承认,他们试图把各国的饮食习惯都转到一种美国创造出来的食物上;但是他们否认把这一行动等同于经济上的帝国主义。


英语四级真题阅读长难句分析(二十四)


95. While there’s no question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句是复合句。句子主干为several studies suggest…。While 引导让步状语从句,意为“尽管,虽然”,比 although 或 though 语气轻。第一个 that 引导同位语从句;第二个 that 引导宾语从句,作 suggest 的宾语。in which 引导定语从句,修饰 situations。

【译文】毫无疑问持续的压力是有害的, 但几项研究证明能够应付的具有挑战性的环境对人体是有益的。


96. As a physician who travels quite a lot, I spend a lot of time on planes listening for that dreaded “Is there a doctor on board?” announcement. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为I spend a lot time。介词as意为“作为,当作”,后接名词作状语。 who 引导定语从句,修饰 physician,who在从句中作主语。“Is there a doctor on board?”是 announcement 的定语,说明具体内容。

【译文】作为一名医生,我去过不少地方,在飞机上我多次听过令人担忧的“哪位乘客是医生?”的通知。


97. Facing their children’s complaints of “nothing to do”, parents were shelling out large numbers of dollars for various forms of entertainment. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 parents were shelling out dollars。facing their children’s complaints of “nothing to do”是现在分词短语作原因状语。

【译文】面对孩子们“无事可做”的抱怨,家长们不惜大把掏钱,让孩子们参加各种各样的娱乐活动。


98. In communities north of Denver, residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators as the Vrain School District tries to solve a $13.8 million budget shortage blamed on mismanagement. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句为residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators。as 引导时间状语从句,译作“当……时候”。blamed on mismanagement 是过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰 shortage。

【译文】当 Vrain 校区设法解决因管理不善而造成的1380万美元预算短缺的时候,多佛市北部社区的居民们都赶来热心地帮助学校教师和行政人员。


99. “Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise,” said Dr. Hans Selye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为复合句。主句为“Humans should not…love or exercise,” said Dr. Hans Selye。not… any more than 意为“和……一样不。than they would shun food, love or exercise 是比较状语从句。the first physician to…stress on the body是Dr. Hans Selye的同位语。

【译文】Hans Selye 医生说:“就像不躲避食物、爱情或锻炼一样,人们也不应该力图躲避压力,”他是第一位将压力对人体的影响记录下来的医生。


100. In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they couldn’t get the job done. (2005年12月)

【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为 those were more likely to say… than those。两个 who都引导定语从句,都修饰 those,但两个 those 指代的内容并不一样。they were in good health 是 say 的宾语。more likely…than 构成比较状语结构, 意为“比……更有可能”。than引导比较状语从句,省略从句谓语。

【译文】2001年对158名护士进行的一项研究指出,那些工作量大却能应对挑战的护士比那些认为自己无法完成任务的护士更容易感到自己身体状况良好。

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